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The defect detection unit basically consists of 1) a light receiver (Camera Unit), 2) a light source (Lighting Unit), 3) a signal processor (SPU), 4) a marker or a labeller, and 5) an encoder. The light receiver is a camera with a CCD line sensor, and the light source is usually such as a fluorescent lamp. There are several lighting methods: transmission mode, diffuse reflection mode, specular reflection mode, and a mode which uses a combination of the others.
First of all, the light from the projector illuminates the material to be inspected so that the unit can detect defects. The light reflects on the material to be inspected and reaches the light receiver (camera), where the light is converted into electric signals. The electrical signals are transmitted to the signal processor, and then via exclusive detection and judgment circuits, any defects are recognized. When a defect is detected, the unit activates the marker, alarm, rotating light, printer, etc. and indicates the occurrence of the defect, for example by displaying the defect image on the operator screen. Nowadays the defect detection unit is regarded as a more advanced system, not merely to detect defects but to provide information to the following processes (for example to a slitter and re-winder machine) to enable analysis of the causes of defect occurrence. The systems are continually evolving so they become even more important in quality enhancement and improvement of product yield.

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